Containers are objects that store other objects. They control allocation and deallocation of these objects through constructors, destructors, insert and erase operations.
All of the complexity requirements in this Clause are stated solely in terms of the number of operations on the contained objects. [ Example: The copy constructor of type vector<vector<int>> has linear complexity, even though the complexity of copying each contained vector<int> is itself linear. — end example ]
For the components affected by this subclause that declare an allocator_type, objects stored in these components shall be constructed using the function allocator_traits<allocator_type>::rebind_traits<U>::construct and destroyed using the function allocator_traits<allocator_type>::rebind_traits<U>::destroy, where U is either allocator_type::value_type or an internal type used by the container. These functions are called only for the container's element type, not for internal types used by the container. [ Note: This means, for example, that a node-based container might need to construct nodes containing aligned buffers and call construct to place the element into the buffer. — end note ]
In Tables 83, 84, and 85 X denotes a container class containing objects of type T, a and b denote values of type X, u denotes an identifier, r denotes a non-const value of type X, and rv denotes a non-const rvalue of type X.
|X::value_type||T||Requires: T is Erasable from X (see [container.requirements.general], below)||compile time|
|X::const_reference||const T&||compile time|
|X::iterator||iterator type whose value type is T||any iterator category that meets the forward iterator requirements. convertible to X::const_iterator.||compile time|
|X::const_iterator||constant iterator type whose value type is T||any iterator category that meets the forward iterator requirements.||compile time|
|X::difference_type||signed integer type||is identical to the difference type of X::iterator and X::const_iterator||compile time|
|X::size_type||unsigned integer type||size_type can represent any non-negative value of difference_type||compile time|
|X u;||Postconditions: u.empty()||constant|
Requires: T is CopyInsertable
into X (see below).|
Postconditions: a == X(a).
| X u(a);|
X u = a;
Requires: T is CopyInsertable
into X (see below).|
Postconditions: u == a
| X u(rv);|
X u = rv;
|Postconditions: u shall be equal to the value that rv had before this construction||(Note B)|
|a = rv||X&||All existing elements of a are either move assigned to or destroyed||a shall be equal to the value that rv had before this assignment||linear|
|(&a)->~X()||void||the destructor is applied to every element of a; any memory obtained is deallocated.||linear|
|a.begin()||iterator; const_iterator for constant a||constant|
|a.end()||iterator; const_iterator for constant a||constant|
|a == b||convertible to bool||== is an equivalence relation. equal(a.begin(), a.end(), b.begin(), b.end())||Requires: T is EqualityComparable||Constant if a.size() != b.size(), linear otherwise|
|a != b||convertible to bool||Equivalent to !(a == b)||linear|
|a.swap(b)||void||exchanges the contents of a and b||(Note A)|
|swap(a, b)||void||a.swap(b)||(Note A)|
|r = a||X&||Postconditions: r == a.||linear|
|a.max_size()||size_type||distance(begin(), end()) for the largest possible container||constant|
|a.empty()||convertible to bool||a.begin() == a.end()||constant|
Those entries marked “(Note A)” or “(Note B)” have linear complexity for array and have constant complexity for all other standard containers. [ Note: The algorithm equal() is defined in Clause [algorithms]. — end note ]
The member function size() returns the number of elements in the container. The number of elements is defined by the rules of constructors, inserts, and erases.
begin() returns an iterator referring to the first element in the container. end() returns an iterator which is the past-the-end value for the container. If the container is empty, then begin() == end().
In the expressions
i == j i != j i < j i <= j i >= j i > j i - j
where i and j denote objects of a container's iterator type, either or both may be replaced by an object of the container's const_iterator type referring to the same element with no change in semantics.
Unless otherwise specified, all containers defined in this clause obtain memory using an allocator (see [allocator.requirements]). [ Note: In particular, containers and iterators do not store references to allocated elements other than through the allocator's pointer type, i.e., as objects of type P or pointer_traits<P>::template rebind<unspecified>, where P is allocator_traits<allocator_type>::pointer. — end note ] Copy constructors for these container types obtain an allocator by calling allocator_traits<allocator_type>::select_on_container_copy_construction on the allocator belonging to the container being copied. Move constructors obtain an allocator by move construction from the allocator belonging to the container being moved. Such move construction of the allocator shall not exit via an exception. All other constructors for these container types take a const allocator_type& argument. [ Note: If an invocation of a constructor uses the default value of an optional allocator argument, then the Allocator type must support value-initialization. — end note ] A copy of this allocator is used for any memory allocation and element construction performed, by these constructors and by all member functions, during the lifetime of each container object or until the allocator is replaced. The allocator may be replaced only via assignment or swap(). Allocator replacement is performed by copy assignment, move assignment, or swapping of the allocator only if allocator_traits<allocator_type>::propagate_on_container_copy_assignment::value, allocator_traits<allocator_type>::propagate_on_container_move_assignment::value, or allocator_traits<allocator_type>::propagate_on_container_swap::value is true within the implementation of the corresponding container operation. In all container types defined in this Clause, the member get_allocator() returns a copy of the allocator used to construct the container or, if that allocator has been replaced, a copy of the most recent replacement.
The expression a.swap(b), for containers a and b of a standard container type other than array, shall exchange the values of a and b without invoking any move, copy, or swap operations on the individual container elements. Lvalues of any Compare, Pred, or Hash types belonging to a and b shall be swappable and shall be exchanged by calling swap as described in [swappable.requirements]. If allocator_traits<allocator_type>::propagate_on_container_swap::value is true, then lvalues of type allocator_type shall be swappable and the allocators of a and b shall also be exchanged by calling swap as described in [swappable.requirements]. Otherwise, the allocators shall not be swapped, and the behavior is undefined unless a.get_allocator() == b.get_allocator(). Every iterator referring to an element in one container before the swap shall refer to the same element in the other container after the swap. It is unspecified whether an iterator with value a.end() before the swap will have value b.end() after the swap.
|X::reverse_iterator||iterator type whose value type is T||reverse_iterator<iterator>||compile time|
|X::const_reverse_iterator||constant iterator type whose value type is T||reverse_iterator<const_iterator>||compile time|
|a.rbegin()||reverse_iterator; const_reverse_iterator for constant a||reverse_iterator(end())||constant|
|a.rend()||reverse_iterator; const_reverse_iterator for constant a||reverse_iterator(begin())||constant|
Unless otherwise specified (see [associative.reqmts.except], [unord.req.except], [deque.modifiers], and [vector.modifiers]) all container types defined in this Clause meet the following additional requirements:
if an exception is thrown by an insert() or emplace() function while inserting a single element, that function has no effects.
if an exception is thrown by a push_back(), push_front(), emplace_back(), or emplace_front() function, that function has no effects.
no erase(), clear(), pop_back() or pop_front() function throws an exception.
no copy constructor or assignment operator of a returned iterator throws an exception.
no swap() function throws an exception.
no swap() function invalidates any references, pointers, or iterators referring to the elements of the containers being swapped. [ Note: The end() iterator does not refer to any element, so it may be invalidated. — end note ]
Unless otherwise specified (either explicitly or by defining a function in terms of other functions), invoking a container member function or passing a container as an argument to a library function shall not invalidate iterators to, or change the values of, objects within that container.
Table 85 lists operations that are provided for some types of containers but not others. Those containers for which the listed operations are provided shall implement the semantics described in Table 85 unless otherwise stated.
|a < b||convertible to bool||lexicographical_compare( a.begin(), a.end(), b.begin(), b.end())||Requires: < is defined for values of T. < is a total ordering relationship.||linear|
|a > b||convertible to bool||b < a||linear|
|a <= b||convertible to bool||!(a > b)||linear|
|a >= b||convertible to bool||!(a < b)||linear|
[ Note: The algorithm lexicographical_compare() is defined in Clause [algorithms]. — end note ]
Given an allocator type A and given a container type X having a value_type identical to T and an allocator_type identical to allocator_traits<A>::rebind_alloc<T> and given an lvalue m of type A, a pointer p of type T*, an expression v of type (possibly const) T, and an rvalue rv of type T, the following terms are defined. If X is not allocator-aware, the terms below are defined as if A were allocator<T> — no allocator object needs to be created and user specializations of allocator<T> are not instantiated:
T is DefaultInsertable into X means that the following expression is well-formed:
An element of X is default-inserted if it is initialized by evaluation of the expression
where p is the address of the uninitialized storage for the element allocated within X.
T is MoveInsertable into X means that the following expression is well-formed:
allocator_traits<A>::construct(m, p, rv)
and its evaluation causes the following postcondition to hold: The value of *p is equivalent to the value of rv before the evaluation. [ Note: rv remains a valid object. Its state is unspecified — end note ]
T is CopyInsertable into X means that, in addition to T being MoveInsertable into X, the following expression is well-formed:
allocator_traits<A>::construct(m, p, v)
and its evaluation causes the following postcondition to hold: The value of v is unchanged and is equivalent to *p.
T is EmplaceConstructible into X from args, for zero or more arguments args, means that the following expression is well-formed:
allocator_traits<A>::construct(m, p, args)
T is Erasable from X means that the following expression is well-formed:
[ Note: A container calls allocator_traits<A>::construct(m, p, args) to construct an element at p using args, with m == get_allocator(). The default construct in allocator will call ::new((void*)p) T(args), but specialized allocators may choose a different definition. — end note ]
In Table 86, X denotes an allocator-aware container class with a value_type of T using allocator of type A, u denotes a variable, a and b denote non-const lvalues of type X, t denotes an lvalue or a const rvalue of type X, rv denotes a non-const rvalue of type X, and m is a value of type A.
|allocator_type||A||Requires: allocator_type::value_type is the same as X::value_type.||compile time|
Requires: A is DefaultConstructible.|
Postconditions: u.empty() returns true, u.get_allocator() == A()
|X(m)||Postconditions: u.empty() returns true,||constant|
|X u(m);||u.get_allocator() == m|
| X(t, m)|
X u(t, m);
Requires: T is CopyInsertable into X.|
Postconditions: u == t, u.get_allocator() == m
|Postconditions: u shall have the same elements as rv had before this construction; the value of u.get_allocator() shall be the same as the value of rv.get_allocator() before this construction.||constant|
| X(rv, m)|
X u(rv, m);
Requires: T is
MoveInsertable into X.|
Postconditions: u shall have the same elements, or copies of the elements, that rv had before this construction, u.get_allocator() == m
|constant if m == rv.get_allocator(), otherwise linear|
|a = t||X&||
Requires: T is
CopyInsertable into X
Postconditions: a == t
|a = rv||X&||
Requires: If allocator_-|
false, T is MoveInsertable into X and MoveAssignable. All existing elements of a are either move assigned to or destroyed.
Postconditions: a shall be equal to the value that rv had before this assignment.
|a.swap(b)||void||exchanges the contents of a and b||constant|
The behavior of certain container member functions and deduction guides depends on whether types qualify as input iterators or allocators. The extent to which an implementation determines that a type cannot be an input iterator is unspecified, except that as a minimum integral types shall not qualify as input iterators. Likewise, the extent to which an implementation determines that a type cannot be an allocator is unspecified, except that as a minimum a type A shall not qualify as an allocator unless it satisfies both of the following conditions: