26 Containers library [containers]

26.3 Sequence containers [sequences]

26.3.8 Class template deque [deque] Class template deque overview [deque.overview]

A deque is a sequence container that supports random access iterators ([random.access.iterators]). In addition, it supports constant time insert and erase operations at the beginning or the end; insert and erase in the middle take linear time. That is, a deque is especially optimized for pushing and popping elements at the beginning and end. Storage management is handled automatically.

A deque satisfies all of the requirements of a container, of a reversible container, of a sequence container, including the optional sequence container requirements, and of an allocator-aware container. Descriptions are provided here only for operations on deque that are not described in one of these tables or for operations where there is additional semantic information.

namespace std {
  template <class T, class Allocator = allocator<T>>
  class deque {
    // types:
    using value_type             = T;
    using allocator_type         = Allocator;
    using pointer                = typename allocator_traits<Allocator>::pointer;
    using const_pointer          = typename allocator_traits<Allocator>::const_pointer;
    using reference              = value_type&;
    using const_reference        = const value_type&;
    using size_type              = implementation-defined; // see [container.requirements]
    using difference_type        = implementation-defined; // see [container.requirements]
    using iterator               = implementation-defined; // see [container.requirements]
    using const_iterator         = implementation-defined; // see [container.requirements]
    using reverse_iterator       = std::reverse_iterator<iterator>;
    using const_reverse_iterator = std::reverse_iterator<const_iterator>;

    // [deque.cons], construct/copy/destroy
    deque() : deque(Allocator()) { }
    explicit deque(const Allocator&);
    explicit deque(size_type n, const Allocator& = Allocator());
    deque(size_type n, const T& value, const Allocator& = Allocator());
    template <class InputIterator>
      deque(InputIterator first, InputIterator last, const Allocator& = Allocator());
    deque(const deque& x);
    deque(const deque&, const Allocator&);
    deque(deque&&, const Allocator&);
    deque(initializer_list<T>, const Allocator& = Allocator());

    deque& operator=(const deque& x);
    deque& operator=(deque&& x)
    deque& operator=(initializer_list<T>);
    template <class InputIterator>
      void assign(InputIterator first, InputIterator last);
    void assign(size_type n, const T& t);
    void assign(initializer_list<T>);
    allocator_type get_allocator() const noexcept;

    // iterators:
    iterator               begin() noexcept;
    const_iterator         begin() const noexcept;
    iterator               end() noexcept;
    const_iterator         end() const noexcept;
    reverse_iterator       rbegin() noexcept;
    const_reverse_iterator rbegin() const noexcept;
    reverse_iterator       rend() noexcept;
    const_reverse_iterator rend() const noexcept;

    const_iterator         cbegin() const noexcept;
    const_iterator         cend() const noexcept;
    const_reverse_iterator crbegin() const noexcept;
    const_reverse_iterator crend() const noexcept;

    // [deque.capacity], capacity
    bool      empty() const noexcept;
    size_type size() const noexcept;
    size_type max_size() const noexcept;
    void      resize(size_type sz);
    void      resize(size_type sz, const T& c);
    void      shrink_to_fit();

    // element access:
    reference       operator[](size_type n);
    const_reference operator[](size_type n) const;
    reference       at(size_type n);
    const_reference at(size_type n) const;
    reference       front();
    const_reference front() const;
    reference       back();
    const_reference back() const;

    // [deque.modifiers], modifiers
    template <class... Args> reference emplace_front(Args&&... args);
    template <class... Args> reference emplace_back(Args&&... args);
    template <class... Args> iterator emplace(const_iterator position, Args&&... args);

    void push_front(const T& x);
    void push_front(T&& x);
    void push_back(const T& x);
    void push_back(T&& x);

    iterator insert(const_iterator position, const T& x);
    iterator insert(const_iterator position, T&& x);
    iterator insert(const_iterator position, size_type n, const T& x);
    template <class InputIterator>
      iterator insert(const_iterator position, InputIterator first, InputIterator last);
    iterator insert(const_iterator position, initializer_list<T>);

    void pop_front();
    void pop_back();

    iterator erase(const_iterator position);
    iterator erase(const_iterator first, const_iterator last);
    void     swap(deque&)
    void     clear() noexcept;

  template<class InputIterator,
           class Allocator = allocator<typename iterator_traits<InputIterator>::value_type>>
    deque(InputIterator, InputIterator, Allocator = Allocator())
      -> deque<typename iterator_traits<InputIterator>::value_type, Allocator>;

  template <class T, class Allocator>
    bool operator==(const deque<T, Allocator>& x, const deque<T, Allocator>& y);
  template <class T, class Allocator>
    bool operator< (const deque<T, Allocator>& x, const deque<T, Allocator>& y);
  template <class T, class Allocator>
    bool operator!=(const deque<T, Allocator>& x, const deque<T, Allocator>& y);
  template <class T, class Allocator>
    bool operator> (const deque<T, Allocator>& x, const deque<T, Allocator>& y);
  template <class T, class Allocator>
    bool operator>=(const deque<T, Allocator>& x, const deque<T, Allocator>& y);
  template <class T, class Allocator>
    bool operator<=(const deque<T, Allocator>& x, const deque<T, Allocator>& y);

  // [deque.special], specialized algorithms
  template <class T, class Allocator>
    void swap(deque<T, Allocator>& x, deque<T, Allocator>& y)