A *constraint* is a sequence of logical operations and
operands that specifies requirements on template arguments.

The operands of a logical operation are constraints.

There are three different kinds of constraints:

In order for a constrained template to be instantiated ([temp.spec]),
its associated constraints
shall be satisfied as described in the following subclauses.

[*Note 1*: *end note*]

Forming the name of a specialization of
a class template,
a variable template, or
an alias template ([temp.names])
requires the satisfaction of its constraints.

Overload resolution
requires the satisfaction of constraints
on functions and function templates.

— There are two binary logical operations on constraints: conjunction
and disjunction.

[*Example 1*: template<typename T>
constexpr bool get_value() { return T::value; }
template<typename T>
requires (sizeof(T) > 1) && (get_value<T>())
void f(T); // has associated constraint sizeof(T) > 1 ∧ get_value<T>()
void f(int);
f('a'); // OK: calls f(int)
*end example*]

In the satisfaction of the associated constraints
of f, the constraint sizeof(char) > 1 is not satisfied;
the second operand is not checked for satisfaction.

— [*Note 2*: — *end note*]

A logical negation expression ([expr.unary.op]) is an atomic constraint;
the negation operator is not treated as a logical operation on constraints.

As a result, distinct negation *constraint-expression**s*
that are equivalent under [temp.over.link]
do not subsume one another under [temp.constr.order].

Furthermore, if substitution to determine
whether an atomic constraint is satisfied ([temp.constr.atomic])
encounters a substitution failure, the constraint is not satisfied,
regardless of the presence of a negation operator.

[*Example 2*: template <class T> concept sad = false;
template <class T> int f1(T) requires (!sad<T>);
template <class T> int f1(T) requires (!sad<T>) && true;
int i1 = f1(42); // ambiguous, !sad<T> atomic constraint expressions ([temp.constr.atomic])
// are not formed from the same *expression*
template <class T> concept not_sad = !sad<T>;
template <class T> int f2(T) requires not_sad<T>;
template <class T> int f2(T) requires not_sad<T> && true;
int i2 = f2(42); // OK, !sad<T> atomic constraint expressions both come from not_sad
template <class T> int f3(T) requires (!sad<typename T::type>);
int i3 = f3(42); // error: associated constraints not satisfied due to substitution failure
template <class T> concept sad_nested_type = sad<typename T::type>;
template <class T> int f4(T) requires (!sad_nested_type<T>);
int i4 = f4(42); // OK, substitution failure contained within sad_nested_type
*end example*]

Here,
requires (!sad<typename T::type>) requires
that there is a nested type that is not sad,
whereas
requires (!sad_nested_type<T>) requires
that there is no sad nested type.

— An *atomic constraint* is formed from
an expression E
and a mapping from the template parameters
that appear within E to
template arguments that are formed via substitution during constraint normalization
in the declaration of a constrained entity (and, therefore, can involve the
unsubstituted template parameters of the constrained entity),
called the *parameter mapping* ([temp.constr.decl]).

Two atomic constraints, and , are
*identical*
if they are formed from the same appearance of the same
*expression*
and if, given a hypothetical template A
whose *template-parameter-list* consists of
*template-parameter**s* corresponding and equivalent ([temp.over.link]) to
those mapped by the parameter mappings of the expression,
a *template-id* naming A
whose *template-argument**s* are
the targets of the parameter mapping of
is the same ([temp.type]) as
a *template-id* naming A
whose *template-argument**s* are
the targets of the parameter mapping of .

[*Note 2*: — *end note*]

The comparison of parameter mappings of atomic constraints
operates in a manner similar to that of declaration matching
with alias template substitution ([temp.alias]).

[*Example 1*: template <unsigned N> constexpr bool Atomic = true;
template <unsigned N> concept C = Atomic<N>;
template <unsigned N> concept Add1 = C<N + 1>;
template <unsigned N> concept AddOne = C<N + 1>;
template <unsigned M> void f()
requires Add1<2 * M>;
template <unsigned M> int f()
requires AddOne<2 * M> && true;
int x = f<0>(); // OK, the atomic constraints from concept C in both fs are Atomic<N>
// with mapping similar to
template <unsigned N> struct WrapN;
template <unsigned N> using Add1Ty = WrapN<N + 1>;
template <unsigned N> using AddOneTy = WrapN<N + 1>;
template <unsigned M> void g(Add1Ty<2 * M> *);
template <unsigned M> void g(AddOneTy<2 * M> *);
void h() {
g<0>(nullptr); // OK, there is only one g
}
— *end example*]

This similarity includes the situation where a program is ill-formed, no diagnostic required,
when the meaning of the program depends on whether two constructs are equivalent,
and they are functionally equivalent but not equivalent.

[*Example 2*: template <unsigned N> void f2()
requires Add1<2 * N>;
template <unsigned N> int f2()
requires Add1<N * 2> && true;
void h2() {
f2<0>(); // ill-formed, no diagnostic required:
// requires determination of subsumption between atomic constraints that are
// functionally equivalent but not equivalent
}
— *end example*]

To determine if an atomic constraint is
*satisfied*,
the parameter mapping and template arguments are
first substituted into its expression.

If substitution results in an invalid type or expression,
the constraint is not satisfied.

Otherwise, the lvalue-to-rvalue conversion
is performed if necessary,
and E shall be a constant expression of type bool.

If, at different points in the program, the satisfaction result is different
for identical atomic constraints and template arguments,
the program is ill-formed, no diagnostic required.

[*Example 3*: template<typename T> concept C =
sizeof(T) == 4 && !true; // requires atomic constraints sizeof(T) == 4 and !true
template<typename T> struct S {
constexpr operator bool() const { return true; }
};
template<typename T> requires (S<T>{})
void f(T); // #1
void f(int); // #2
void g() {
f(0); // error: expression S<int>{} does not have type bool
} // while checking satisfaction of deduced arguments of #1;
// call is ill-formed even though #2 is a better match
— *end example*]