11 Classes [class]

11.4 Class members [class.mem]

11.4.10 Bit-fields [class.bit]

The optional attribute-specifier-seq appertains to the entity being declared.
A bit-field shall not be a static member.
A bit-field shall have integral or enumeration type; the bit-field semantic property is not part of the type of the class member.
The constant-expression shall be an integral constant expression with a value greater than or equal to zero and is called the width of the bit-field.
If the width of a bit-field is larger than the width of the bit-field's type (or, in case of an enumeration type, of its underlying type), the extra bits are padding bits ([basic.types]).
Allocation of bit-fields within a class object is implementation-defined.
Alignment of bit-fields is implementation-defined.
Bit-fields are packed into some addressable allocation unit.
[Note 1:
Bit-fields straddle allocation units on some machines and not on others.
Bit-fields are assigned right-to-left on some machines, left-to-right on others.
— end note]
A declaration for a bit-field that omits the identifier declares an unnamed bit-field.
Unnamed bit-fields are not members and cannot be initialized.
An unnamed bit-field shall not be declared with a cv-qualified type.
[Note 2:
An unnamed bit-field is useful for padding to conform to externally-imposed layouts.
— end note]
As a special case, an unnamed bit-field with a width of zero specifies alignment of the next bit-field at an allocation unit boundary.
Only when declaring an unnamed bit-field may the width be zero.
The address-of operator & shall not be applied to a bit-field, so there are no pointers to bit-fields.
A non-const reference shall not be bound to a bit-field ([dcl.init.ref]).
[Note 3:
If the initializer for a reference of type const T& is an lvalue that refers to a bit-field, the reference is bound to a temporary initialized to hold the value of the bit-field; the reference is not bound to the bit-field directly.
— end note]
If a value of integral type (other than bool) is stored into a bit-field of width N and the value would be representable in a hypothetical signed or unsigned integer type with width N and the same signedness as the bit-field's type, the original value and the value of the bit-field compare equal.
If the value true or false is stored into a bit-field of type bool of any size (including a one bit bit-field), the original bool value and the value of the bit-field compare equal.
If a value of an enumeration type is stored into a bit-field of the same type and the width is large enough to hold all the values of that enumeration type ([dcl.enum]), the original value and the value of the bit-field compare equal.
[Example 1: enum BOOL { FALSE=0, TRUE=1 }; struct A { BOOL b:1; }; A a; void f() { a.b = TRUE; if (a.b == TRUE) // yields true { /* ... */ } } — end example]