6 Basics [basic]

6.5 Name lookup [basic.lookup]

6.5.5 Qualified name lookup [basic.lookup.qual]

6.5.5.3 Namespace members [namespace.qual]

Qualified name lookup in a namespace N additionally searches every element of the inline namespace set of N ([namespace.def]).
If nothing is found, the results of the lookup are the results of qualified name lookup in each namespace nominated by a using-directive that precedes the point of the lookup and inhabits N or an element of N's inline namespace set.
[Note 1:
If a using-directive refers to a namespace that has already been considered, it does not affect the result.
— end note]
[Example 1: int x; namespace Y { void f(float); void h(int); } namespace Z { void h(double); } namespace A { using namespace Y; void f(int); void g(int); int i; } namespace B { using namespace Z; void f(char); int i; } namespace AB { using namespace A; using namespace B; void g(); } void h() { AB::g(); // g is declared directly in AB, therefore S is { AB​::​g() } and AB​::​g() is chosen AB::f(1); // f is not declared directly in AB so the rules are applied recursively to A and B; // namespace Y is not searched and Y​::​f(float) is not considered; // S is and overload resolution chooses A​::​f(int) AB::f('c'); // as above but resolution chooses B​::​f(char) AB::x++; // x is not declared directly in AB, and is not declared in A or B, so the rules // are applied recursively to Y and Z, S is { } so the program is ill-formed AB::i++; // i is not declared directly in AB so the rules are applied recursively to A and B, // S is so the use is ambiguous and the program is ill-formed AB::h(16.8); // h is not declared directly in AB and not declared directly in A or B so the rules // are applied recursively to Y and Z, S is and // overload resolution chooses Z​::​h(double) } — end example]
[Note 2:
The same declaration found more than once is not an ambiguity (because it is still a unique declaration).
[Example 2: namespace A { int a; } namespace B { using namespace A; } namespace C { using namespace A; } namespace BC { using namespace B; using namespace C; } void f() { BC::a++; // OK: S is } namespace D { using A::a; } namespace BD { using namespace B; using namespace D; } void g() { BD::a++; // OK: S is } — end example]
— end note]
[Example 3:
Because each referenced namespace is searched at most once, the following is well-defined: namespace B { int b; } namespace A { using namespace B; int a; } namespace B { using namespace A; } void f() { A::a++; // OK: a declared directly in A, S is { A​::​a } B::a++; // OK: both A and B searched (once), S is { A​::​a } A::b++; // OK: both A and B searched (once), S is { B​::​b } B::b++; // OK: b declared directly in B, S is { B​::​b } }
— end example]
[Note 3:
Class and enumeration declarations are not discarded because of other declarations found in other searches.
— end note]
[Example 4: namespace A { struct x { }; int x; int y; } namespace B { struct y { }; } namespace C { using namespace A; using namespace B; int i = C::x; // OK, A​::​x (of type int) int j = C::y; // ambiguous, A​::​y or B​::​y } — end example]