9 Declarations [dcl.dcl]

9.12 Attributes [dcl.attr]

9.12.1 Attribute syntax and semantics [dcl.attr.grammar]

Attributes specify additional information for various source constructs such as types, variables, names, blocks, or translation units.
alignas ( type-id ... )
alignas ( constant-expression ... )
( balanced-token-seq )
[ balanced-token-seq ]
{ balanced-token-seq }
any token other than a parenthesis, a bracket, or a brace
If an attribute-specifier contains an attribute-using-prefix, the attribute-list following that attribute-using-prefix shall not contain an attribute-scoped-token and every attribute-token in that attribute-list is treated as if its identifier were prefixed with N​::​, where N is the attribute-namespace specified in the attribute-using-prefix.
[Note 1: 
This rule imposes no constraints on how an attribute-using-prefix affects the tokens in an attribute-argument-clause.
— end note]
[Example 1: [[using CC: opt(1), debug]] // same as [[CC​::​opt(1), CC​::​debug]] void f() {} [[using CC: opt(1)]] [[CC::debug]] // same as [[CC​::​opt(1)]] [[CC​::​debug]] void g() {} [[using CC: CC::opt(1)]] // error: cannot combine using and scoped attribute token void h() {} — end example]
[Note 2: 
For each individual attribute, the form of the balanced-token-seq will be specified.
— end note]
In an attribute-list, an ellipsis may appear only if that attribute's specification permits it.
An attribute followed by an ellipsis is a pack expansion.
An attribute-specifier that contains no attributes has no effect.
The order in which the attribute-tokens appear in an attribute-list is not significant.
If a keyword or an alternative token that satisfies the syntactic requirements of an identifier ([lex.name]) is contained in an attribute-token, it is considered an identifier.
No name lookup is performed on any of the identifiers contained in an attribute-token.
The attribute-token determines additional requirements on the attribute-argument-clause (if any).
Each attribute-specifier-seq is said to appertain to some entity or statement, identified by the syntactic context where it appears ([stmt.stmt], [dcl.dcl], [dcl.decl]).
If an attribute-specifier-seq that appertains to some entity or statement contains an attribute or alignment-specifier that is not allowed to apply to that entity or statement, the program is ill-formed.
If an attribute-specifier-seq appertains to a friend declaration ([class.friend]), that declaration shall be a definition.
[Note 3: 
An attribute-specifier-seq cannot appeartain to an explicit instantiation ([temp.explicit]).
— end note]
For an attribute-token (including an attribute-scoped-token) not specified in this document, the behavior is implementation-defined; any such attribute-token that is not recognized by the implementation is ignored.
[Note 4: 
A program is ill-formed if it contains an attribute specified in [dcl.attr] that violates the rules specifying to which entity or statement the attribute can apply or the syntax rules for the attribute's attribute-argument-clause, if any.
— end note]
[Note 5: 
The attributes specified in [dcl.attr] have optional semantics: given a well-formed program, removing all instances of any one of those attributes results in a program whose set of possible executions ([intro.abstract]) for a given input is a subset of those of the original program for the same input, absent implementation-defined guarantees with respect to that attribute.
— end note]
An attribute-token is reserved for future standardization if
Each implementation should choose a distinctive name for the attribute-namespace in an attribute-scoped-token.
Two consecutive left square bracket tokens shall appear only when introducing an attribute-specifier or within the balanced-token-seq of an attribute-argument-clause.
[Note 6: 
If two consecutive left square brackets appear where an attribute-specifier is not allowed, the program is ill-formed even if the brackets match an alternative grammar production.
— end note]
[Example 2: int p[10]; void f() { int x = 42, y[5]; int(p[[x] { return x; }()]); // error: invalid attribute on a nested declarator-id and // not a function-style cast of an element of p. y[[] { return 2; }()] = 2; // error even though attributes are not allowed in this context. int i [[vendor::attr([[]])]]; // well-formed implementation-defined attribute. } — end example]