20 General utilities library [utilities]

20.20 Formatting [format]

20.20.5 Formatter [format.formatter] Class template basic_­format_­context [format.context]

namespace std { template<class Out, class charT> class basic_format_context { basic_format_args<basic_format_context> args_; // exposition only Out out_; // exposition only public: using iterator = Out; using char_type = charT; template<class T> using formatter_type = formatter<T, charT>; basic_format_arg<basic_format_context> arg(size_t id) const; std::locale locale(); iterator out(); void advance_to(iterator it); }; }
An instance of basic_­format_­context holds formatting state consisting of the formatting arguments and the output iterator.
Out shall model output_­iterator<const charT&>.
format_­context is an alias for a specialization of basic_­format_­context with an output iterator that appends to string, such as back_­insert_­iterator<string>.
Similarly, wformat_­context is an alias for a specialization of basic_­format_­context with an output iterator that appends to wstring.
[Note 1:
For a given type charT, implementations are encouraged to provide a single instantiation of basic_­format_­context for appending to basic_­string<charT>, vector<charT>, or any other container with contiguous storage by wrapping those in temporary objects with a uniform interface (such as a span<charT>) and polymorphic reallocation.
— end note]
basic_format_arg<basic_format_context> arg(size_t id) const;
Returns: args_­.get(id).
std::locale locale();
Returns: The locale passed to the formatting function if the latter takes one, and std​::​locale() otherwise.
iterator out();
Returns: out_­.
void advance_to(iterator it);
Effects: Equivalent to: out_­ = it;
[Example 1: struct S { int value; }; template<> struct std::formatter<S> { size_t width_arg_id = 0; // Parses a width argument id in the format { digit }. constexpr auto parse(format_parse_context& ctx) { auto iter = ctx.begin(); auto get_char = [&]() { return iter != ctx.end() ? *iter : 0; }; if (get_char() != '{') return iter; ++iter; char c = get_char(); if (!isdigit(c) || (++iter, get_char()) != '}') throw format_error("invalid format"); width_arg_id = c - '0'; ctx.check_arg_id(width_arg_id); return ++iter; } // Formats an S with width given by the argument width_­arg_­id. auto format(S s, format_context& ctx) { int width = visit_format_arg([](auto value) -> int { if constexpr (!is_integral_v<decltype(value)>) throw format_error("width is not integral"); else if (value < 0 || value > numeric_limits<int>::max()) throw format_error("invalid width"); else return value; }, ctx.arg(width_arg_id)); return format_to(ctx.out(), "{0:x<{1}}", s.value, width); } }; std::string s = std::format("{0:{1}}", S{42}, 10); // value of s is "xxxxxxxx42" — end example]