11 Classes [class]

11.4 Class members [class.mem]

11.4.9 Static members [class.static] General [class.static.general]

A static member s of class X may be referred to using the qualified-id expression X​::​s; it is not necessary to use the class member access syntax ([expr.ref]) to refer to a static member.
A static member may be referred to using the class member access syntax, in which case the object expression is evaluated.
[Example 1: struct process { static void reschedule(); }; process& g(); void f() { process::reschedule(); // OK: no object necessary g().reschedule(); // g() is called } — end example]
A static member may be referred to directly in the scope of its class or in the scope of a class derived ([class.derived]) from its class; in this case, the static member is referred to as if a qualified-id expression was used, with the nested-name-specifier of the qualified-id naming the class scope from which the static member is referenced.
[Example 2: int g(); struct X { static int g(); }; struct Y : X { static int i; }; int Y::i = g(); // equivalent to Y​::​g(); — end example]
Static members obey the usual class member access rules ([class.access]).
When used in the declaration of a class member, the static specifier shall only be used in the member declarations that appear within the member-specification of the class definition.
[Note 1:
It cannot be specified in member declarations that appear in namespace scope.
— end note] Static member functions [class.static.mfct]

[Note 1:
The rules described in [class.mfct] apply to static member functions.
— end note]
[Note 2:
A static member function does not have a this pointer ([class.this]).
A static member function cannot be declared virtual ([dcl.fct.spec]).
There cannot be a static and a non-static member function with the same name, parameter-type-list, and trailing requires-clause ([over.load]).
A static member function cannot not be declared const, volatile, or const volatile ([dcl.fct]).
— end note] Static data members [class.static.data]

A static data member is not part of the subobjects of a class.
If a static data member is declared thread_­local there is one copy of the member per thread.
If a static data member is not declared thread_­local there is one copy of the data member that is shared by all the objects of the class.
A static data member shall not be mutable ([dcl.stc]).
A static data member shall not be a direct member ([class.mem]) of an unnamed ([class.pre]) or local ([class.local]) class or of a (possibly indirectly) nested class ([class.nest]) thereof.
The declaration of a non-inline static data member in its class definition is not a definition and may be of an incomplete type other than cv void.
The definition for a static data member that is not defined inline in the class definition shall appear in a namespace scope enclosing the member's class definition.
In the definition at namespace scope, the name of the static data member shall be qualified by its class name using the ​::​ operator.
The initializer expression in the definition of a static data member is in the scope of its class ([basic.scope.class]).
[Example 1: class process { static process* run_chain; static process* running; }; process* process::running = get_main(); process* process::run_chain = running;
The static data member run_­chain of class process is defined in global scope; the notation process​::​run_­chain specifies that the member run_­chain is a member of class process and in the scope of class process.
In the static data member definition, the initializer expression refers to the static data member running of class process.
— end example]
[Note 1:
Once the static data member has been defined, it exists even if no objects of its class have been created.
[Example 2:
In the example above, run_­chain and running exist even if no objects of class process are created by the program.
— end example]
— end note]
If a non-volatile non-inline const static data member is of integral or enumeration type, its declaration in the class definition can specify a brace-or-equal-initializer in which every initializer-clause that is an assignment-expression is a constant expression ([expr.const]).
The member shall still be defined in a namespace scope if it is odr-used ([basic.def.odr]) in the program and the namespace scope definition shall not contain an initializer.
An inline static data member may be defined in the class definition and may specify a brace-or-equal-initializer.
If the member is declared with the constexpr specifier, it may be redeclared in namespace scope with no initializer (this usage is deprecated; see [depr.static.constexpr]).
Declarations of other static data members shall not specify a brace-or-equal-initializer.
[Note 2:
There is exactly one definition of a static data member that is odr-used ([basic.def.odr]) in a valid program.
— end note]
[Note 3:
Static data members of a class in namespace scope have the linkage of the name of the class ([basic.link]).
— end note]
Static data members are initialized and destroyed exactly like non-local variables ([basic.start.static], [basic.start.dynamic], [basic.start.term]).