22 Containers library [containers]

22.3 Sequence containers [sequences]

22.3.11 Class template vector [vector] Overview [vector.overview]

A vector is a sequence container that supports (amortized) constant time insert and erase operations at the end; insert and erase in the middle take linear time.
Storage management is handled automatically, though hints can be given to improve efficiency.
A vector meets all of the requirements of a container and of a reversible container (given in two tables in [container.requirements]), of a sequence container, including most of the optional sequence container requirements ([sequence.reqmts]), of an allocator-aware container (Table 76), and, for an element type other than bool, of a contiguous container.
The exceptions are the push_­front, pop_­front, and emplace_­front member functions, which are not provided.
Descriptions are provided here only for operations on vector that are not described in one of these tables or for operations where there is additional semantic information.
The types iterator and const_­iterator meet the constexpr iterator requirements ([iterator.requirements.general]).
namespace std {
  template<class T, class Allocator = allocator<T>>
  class vector {
    // types
    using value_type             = T;
    using allocator_type         = Allocator;
    using pointer                = typename allocator_traits<Allocator>::pointer;
    using const_pointer          = typename allocator_traits<Allocator>::const_pointer;
    using reference              = value_type&;
    using const_reference        = const value_type&;
    using size_type              = implementation-defined; // see [container.requirements]
    using difference_type        = implementation-defined; // see [container.requirements]
    using iterator               = implementation-defined; // see [container.requirements]
    using const_iterator         = implementation-defined; // see [container.requirements]
    using reverse_iterator       = std::reverse_iterator<iterator>;
    using const_reverse_iterator = std::reverse_iterator<const_iterator>;

    // [vector.cons], construct/copy/destroy
    constexpr vector() noexcept(noexcept(Allocator())) : vector(Allocator()) { }
    constexpr explicit vector(const Allocator&) noexcept;
    constexpr explicit vector(size_type n, const Allocator& = Allocator());
    constexpr vector(size_type n, const T& value, const Allocator& = Allocator());
    template<class InputIterator>
      constexpr vector(InputIterator first, InputIterator last, const Allocator& = Allocator());
    constexpr vector(const vector& x);
    constexpr vector(vector&&) noexcept;
    constexpr vector(const vector&, const Allocator&);
    constexpr vector(vector&&, const Allocator&);
    constexpr vector(initializer_list<T>, const Allocator& = Allocator());
    constexpr ~vector();
    constexpr vector& operator=(const vector& x);
    constexpr vector& operator=(vector&& x)
      noexcept(allocator_traits<Allocator>::propagate_on_container_move_assignment::value ||
    constexpr vector& operator=(initializer_list<T>);
    template<class InputIterator>
      constexpr void assign(InputIterator first, InputIterator last);
    constexpr void assign(size_type n, const T& u);
    constexpr void assign(initializer_list<T>);
    constexpr allocator_type get_allocator() const noexcept;

    // iterators
    constexpr iterator               begin() noexcept;
    constexpr const_iterator         begin() const noexcept;
    constexpr iterator               end() noexcept;
    constexpr const_iterator         end() const noexcept;
    constexpr reverse_iterator       rbegin() noexcept;
    constexpr const_reverse_iterator rbegin() const noexcept;
    constexpr reverse_iterator       rend() noexcept;
    constexpr const_reverse_iterator rend() const noexcept;

    constexpr const_iterator         cbegin() const noexcept;
    constexpr const_iterator         cend() const noexcept;
    constexpr const_reverse_iterator crbegin() const noexcept;
    constexpr const_reverse_iterator crend() const noexcept;

    // [vector.capacity], capacity
    [[nodiscard]] constexpr bool empty() const noexcept;
    constexpr size_type size() const noexcept;
    constexpr size_type max_size() const noexcept;
    constexpr size_type capacity() const noexcept;
    constexpr void      resize(size_type sz);
    constexpr void      resize(size_type sz, const T& c);
    constexpr void      reserve(size_type n);
    constexpr void      shrink_to_fit();

    // element access
    constexpr reference       operator[](size_type n);
    constexpr const_reference operator[](size_type n) const;
    constexpr const_reference at(size_type n) const;
    constexpr reference       at(size_type n);
    constexpr reference       front();
    constexpr const_reference front() const;
    constexpr reference       back();
    constexpr const_reference back() const;

    // [vector.data], data access
    constexpr T*       data() noexcept;
    constexpr const T* data() const noexcept;

    // [vector.modifiers], modifiers
    template<class... Args> constexpr reference emplace_back(Args&&... args);
    constexpr void push_back(const T& x);
    constexpr void push_back(T&& x);
    constexpr void pop_back();

    template<class... Args> constexpr iterator emplace(const_iterator position, Args&&... args);
    constexpr iterator insert(const_iterator position, const T& x);
    constexpr iterator insert(const_iterator position, T&& x);
    constexpr iterator insert(const_iterator position, size_type n, const T& x);
    template<class InputIterator>
      constexpr iterator insert(const_iterator position,
                                InputIterator first, InputIterator last);
    constexpr iterator insert(const_iterator position, initializer_list<T> il);
    constexpr iterator erase(const_iterator position);
    constexpr iterator erase(const_iterator first, const_iterator last);
    constexpr void     swap(vector&)
      noexcept(allocator_traits<Allocator>::propagate_on_container_swap::value ||
    constexpr void     clear() noexcept;

  template<class InputIterator, class Allocator = allocator<iter-value-type<InputIterator>>>
    vector(InputIterator, InputIterator, Allocator = Allocator())
      -> vector<iter-value-type<InputIterator>, Allocator>;

  // swap
  template<class T, class Allocator>
    constexpr void swap(vector<T, Allocator>& x, vector<T, Allocator>& y)
An incomplete type T may be used when instantiating vector if the allocator meets the allocator completeness requirements.
T shall be complete before any member of the resulting specialization of vector is referenced.