14 Exception handling [except]

14.1 Preamble [except.pre]

Exception handling provides a way of transferring control and information from a point in the execution of a thread to an exception handler associated with a point previously passed by the execution.
A handler will be invoked only by throwing an exception in code executed in the handler's try block or in functions called from the handler's try block.
	try compound-statement handler-seq
	try ctor-initializer compound-statement handler-seq
	handler handler-seq
	catch ( exception-declaration ) compound-statement
	attribute-specifier-seq type-specifier-seq declarator
	attribute-specifier-seq type-specifier-seq abstract-declarator
The optional attribute-specifier-seq in an exception-declaration appertains to the parameter of the catch clause ([except.handle]).
Within this Clause “try block” is taken to mean both try-block and function-try-block.
— end note
A goto or switch statement shall not be used to transfer control into a try block or into a handler.
void f() {
  goto l1;          // error
  goto l2;          // error
  try {
    goto l1;        // OK
    goto l2;        // error
    l1: ;
  } catch (...) {
    l2: ;
    goto l1;        // error
    goto l2;        // OK

— end example
A goto, break, return, or continue statement can be used to transfer control out of a try block or handler.
When this happens, each variable declared in the try block will be destroyed in the context that directly contains its declaration.
lab:  try {
  T1 t1;
  try {
    T2 t2;
    if (condition)
      goto lab;
    } catch(...) { /* handler 2 */ }
  } catch(...) { /* handler 1 */ }
Here, executing goto lab; will destroy first t2, then t1, assuming the condition does not declare a variable.
Any exception thrown while destroying t2 will result in executing handler 2; any exception thrown while destroying t1 will result in executing handler 1.
— end example
A function-try-block associates a handler-seq with the ctor-initializer, if present, and the compound-statement.
An exception thrown during the execution of the compound-statement or, for constructors and destructors, during the initialization or destruction, respectively, of the class's subobjects, transfers control to a handler in a function-try-block in the same way as an exception thrown during the execution of a try-block transfers control to other handlers.
int f(int);
class C {
  int i;
  double d;
  C(int, double);

C::C(int ii, double id)
try : i(f(ii)), d(id) {
    // constructor statements
} catch (...) {
    // handles exceptions thrown from the ctor-initializer and from the constructor statements
— end example
In this Clause, “before” and “after” refer to the “sequenced before” relation.