33 Thread support library [thread]

33.6 Futures [futures]

33.6.2 Header <future> synopsis [future.syn]

namespace std {
  enum class future_errc {
    broken_promise = implementation-defined,
    future_already_retrieved = implementation-defined,
    promise_already_satisfied = implementation-defined,
    no_state = implementation-defined

  enum class launch : unspecified {
    async = unspecified,
    deferred = unspecified,

  enum class future_status {

  template <> struct is_error_code_enum<future_errc> : public true_type { };
  error_code make_error_code(future_errc e) noexcept;
  error_condition make_error_condition(future_errc e) noexcept;

  const error_category& future_category() noexcept;

  class future_error;

  template <class R> class promise;
  template <class R> class promise<R&>;
  template <> class promise<void>;

  template <class R>
    void swap(promise<R>& x, promise<R>& y) noexcept;

  template <class R, class Alloc>
    struct uses_allocator<promise<R>, Alloc>;

  template <class R> class future;
  template <class R> class future<R&>;
  template <> class future<void>;

  template <class R> class shared_future;
  template <class R> class shared_future<R&>;
  template <> class shared_future<void>;

  template <class> class packaged_task;   // not defined
  template <class R, class... ArgTypes>
    class packaged_task<R(ArgTypes...)>;

  template <class R, class... ArgTypes>
    void swap(packaged_task<R(ArgTypes...)>&, packaged_task<R(ArgTypes...)>&) noexcept;

  template <class R, class Alloc>
    struct uses_allocator<packaged_task<R>, Alloc>;

  template <class F, class... Args>
    future<invoke_result_t<decay_t<F>, decay_t<Args>...>>
    async(F&& f, Args&&... args);
  template <class F, class... Args>
    future<invoke_result_t<decay_t<F>, decay_t<Args>...>>
    async(launch policy, F&& f, Args&&... args);

The enum type launch is a bitmask type with elements launch​::​async and launch​::​deferred. [Note: Implementations can provide bitmasks to specify restrictions on task interaction by functions launched by async() applicable to a corresponding subset of available launch policies. Implementations can extend the behavior of the first overload of async() by adding their extensions to the launch policy under the “as if” rule. end note]

The enum values of future_­errc are distinct and not zero.