21 Language support library [language.support]

21.8 Exception handling [support.exception]

21.8.7 nested_­exception [except.nested]

namespace std {
  class nested_exception {
    nested_exception() noexcept;
    nested_exception(const nested_exception&) noexcept = default;
    nested_exception& operator=(const nested_exception&) noexcept = default;
    virtual ~nested_exception() = default;

    // access functions
    [[noreturn]] void rethrow_nested() const;
    exception_ptr nested_ptr() const noexcept;

  template<class T> [[noreturn]] void throw_with_nested(T&& t);
  template <class E> void rethrow_if_nested(const E& e);

The class nested_­exception is designed for use as a mixin through multiple inheritance. It captures the currently handled exception and stores it for later use.

[Note: nested_­exception has a virtual destructor to make it a polymorphic class. Its presence can be tested for with dynamic_­cast. end note]

nested_exception() noexcept;

Effects: The constructor calls current_­exception() and stores the returned value.

[[noreturn]] void rethrow_nested() const;

Effects: If nested_­ptr() returns a null pointer, the function calls std​::​terminate(). Otherwise, it throws the stored exception captured by *this.

exception_ptr nested_ptr() const noexcept;

Returns: The stored exception captured by this nested_­exception object.

template <class T> [[noreturn]] void throw_with_nested(T&& t);

Let U be decay_­t<T>.

Requires: U shall be CopyConstructible.

Throws: If is_­class_­v<U> && !is_­final_­v<U> && !is_­base_­of_­v<nested_­exception, U> is true, an exception of unspecified type that is publicly derived from both U and nested_­exception and constructed from std​::​forward<T>(t), otherwise std​::​forward<T>(t).

template <class E> void rethrow_if_nested(const E& e);

Effects: If E is not a polymorphic class type, or if nested_­exception is an inaccessible or ambiguous base class of E, there is no effect. Otherwise, performs:

if (auto p = dynamic_cast<const nested_exception*>(addressof(e)))