namespace std { template <class T> struct atomic<T*> { using value_type = T*; using difference_type = ptrdiff_t; static constexpr bool is_always_lock_free = implementation-defined; bool is_lock_free() const volatile noexcept; bool is_lock_free() const noexcept; void store(T*, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept; void store(T*, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept; T* load(memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) const volatile noexcept; T* load(memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) const noexcept; operator T*() const volatile noexcept; operator T*() const noexcept; T* exchange(T*, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept; T* exchange(T*, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept; bool compare_exchange_weak(T*&, T*, memory_order, memory_order) volatile noexcept; bool compare_exchange_weak(T*&, T*, memory_order, memory_order) noexcept; bool compare_exchange_strong(T*&, T*, memory_order, memory_order) volatile noexcept; bool compare_exchange_strong(T*&, T*, memory_order, memory_order) noexcept; bool compare_exchange_weak(T*&, T*, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept; bool compare_exchange_weak(T*&, T*, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept; bool compare_exchange_strong(T*&, T*, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept; bool compare_exchange_strong(T*&, T*, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept; T* fetch_add(ptrdiff_t, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept; T* fetch_add(ptrdiff_t, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept; T* fetch_sub(ptrdiff_t, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept; T* fetch_sub(ptrdiff_t, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept; atomic() noexcept = default; constexpr atomic(T*) noexcept; atomic(const atomic&) = delete; atomic& operator=(const atomic&) = delete; atomic& operator=(const atomic&) volatile = delete; T* operator=(T*) volatile noexcept; T* operator=(T*) noexcept; T* operator++(int) volatile noexcept; T* operator++(int) noexcept; T* operator--(int) volatile noexcept; T* operator--(int) noexcept; T* operator++() volatile noexcept; T* operator++() noexcept; T* operator--() volatile noexcept; T* operator--() noexcept; T* operator+=(ptrdiff_t) volatile noexcept; T* operator+=(ptrdiff_t) noexcept; T* operator-=(ptrdiff_t) volatile noexcept; T* operator-=(ptrdiff_t) noexcept; }; }

There is a partial specialization of the atomic class template for pointers. Specializations of this partial specialization are standard-layout structs. They each have a trivial default constructor and a trivial destructor.

The following operations perform pointer arithmetic. The key, operator, and computation correspondence is:

Table 139 — Atomic pointer computations

Key | Op | Computation | Key | Op | Computation |

add | + | addition | sub | - | subtraction |

```
T* fetch_key(ptrdiff_t operand, memory_order order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept;
T* fetch_key(ptrdiff_t operand, memory_order order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept;
```

Requires: T shall be an object type, otherwise the program is ill-formed. [ Note: Pointer arithmetic on void* or function pointers is ill-formed. — end note ]

Effects: Atomically replaces the value pointed to by this with the result of the computation applied to the value pointed to by this and the given operand. Memory is affected according to the value of order. These operations are atomic read-modify-write operations ([intro.multithread]).

Remarks: The result may be an undefined address, but the operations otherwise have no undefined behavior.

```
T* operator op=(ptrdiff_t operand) volatile noexcept;
T* operator op=(ptrdiff_t operand) noexcept;
```