The switch statement causes control to be transferred to one of several statements depending on the value of a condition.
The condition shall be of integral type, enumeration type, or of a class type for which a single non-explicit conversion function to integral or enumeration type exists ([class.conv]). If the condition is of class type, the condition is converted by calling that conversion function, and the result of the conversion is used in place of the original condition for the remainder of this section. Integral promotions are performed. Any statement within the switch statement can be labeled with one or more case labels as follows:
case constant-expression :
where the constant-expression shall be a converted constant expression ([expr.const]) of the promoted type of the switch condition. No two of the case constants in the same switch shall have the same value after conversion to the promoted type of the switch condition.
within a switch statement.
Switch statements can be nested; a case or default label is associated with the smallest switch enclosing it.
When the switch statement is executed, its condition is evaluated and compared with each case constant. If one of the case constants is equal to the value of the condition, control is passed to the statement following the matched case label. If no case constant matches the condition, and if there is a default label, control passes to the statement labeled by the default label. If no case matches and if there is no default then none of the statements in the switch is executed.
case and default labels in themselves do not alter the flow of control, which continues unimpeded across such labels. To exit from a switch, see break, [stmt.break]. [ Note: Usually, the substatement that is the subject of a switch is compound and case and default labels appear on the top-level statements contained within the (compound) substatement, but this is not required. Declarations can appear in the substatement of a switch-statement. — end note ]