23 Containers library [containers]

23.3 Sequence containers [sequences]

23.3.3 Class template deque [deque] Class template deque overview [deque.overview]

A deque is a sequence container that, like a vector ([vector]), supports random access iterators. In addition, it supports constant time insert and erase operations at the beginning or the end; insert and erase in the middle take linear time. That is, a deque is especially optimized for pushing and popping elements at the beginning and end. As with vectors, storage management is handled automatically.

A deque satisfies all of the requirements of a container, of a reversible container (given in tables in [container.requirements]), of a sequence container, including the optional sequence container requirements ([sequence.reqmts]), and of an allocator-aware container (Table [tab:containers.allocatoraware]). Descriptions are provided here only for operations on deque that are not described in one of these tables or for operations where there is additional semantic information.

namespace std {
  template <class T, class Allocator = allocator<T> >
  class deque {
    // types:
    typedef value_type&                           reference;
    typedef const value_type&                     const_reference;
    typedef implementation-defined                iterator;       // See [container.requirements]
    typedef implementation-defined                const_iterator; // See [container.requirements]
    typedef implementation-defined                size_type;      // See [container.requirements]
    typedef implementation-defined                difference_type;// See [container.requirements]
    typedef T                                     value_type;
    typedef Allocator                             allocator_type;
    typedef typename allocator_traits<Allocator>::pointer           pointer;
    typedef typename allocator_traits<Allocator>::const_pointer     const_pointer;
    typedef std::reverse_iterator<iterator>       reverse_iterator;
    typedef std::reverse_iterator<const_iterator> const_reverse_iterator;

    // [deque.cons], construct/copy/destroy:
    explicit deque(const Allocator& = Allocator());
    explicit deque(size_type n);
    deque(size_type n, const T& value,const Allocator& = Allocator());
    template <class InputIterator>
      deque(InputIterator first, InputIterator last,const Allocator& = Allocator());
    deque(const deque& x);
    deque(const deque&, const Allocator&);
    deque(deque&&, const Allocator&);
    deque(initializer_list<T>, const Allocator& = Allocator());

    deque& operator=(const deque& x);
    deque& operator=(deque&& x);
    deque& operator=(initializer_list<T>);
    template <class InputIterator>
      void assign(InputIterator first, InputIterator last);
    void assign(size_type n, const T& t);
    void assign(initializer_list<T>);
    allocator_type get_allocator() const noexcept;

    // iterators:
    iterator               begin() noexcept;
    const_iterator         begin() const noexcept;
    iterator               end() noexcept;
    const_iterator         end() const noexcept;
    reverse_iterator       rbegin() noexcept;
    const_reverse_iterator rbegin() const noexcept;
    reverse_iterator       rend() noexcept;
    const_reverse_iterator rend() const noexcept;

    const_iterator         cbegin() const noexcept;
    const_iterator         cend() const noexcept;
    const_reverse_iterator crbegin() const noexcept;
    const_reverse_iterator crend() const noexcept;

    // [deque.capacity], capacity:
    size_type size() const noexcept;
    size_type max_size() const noexcept;
    void      resize(size_type sz);
    void      resize(size_type sz, const T& c);
    void      shrink_to_fit();
    bool      empty() const noexcept;

    // element access:
    reference       operator[](size_type n);
    const_reference operator[](size_type n) const;
    reference       at(size_type n);
    const_reference at(size_type n) const;
    reference       front();
    const_reference front() const;
    reference       back();
    const_reference back() const;

    // [deque.modifiers], modifiers:
    template <class... Args> void emplace_front(Args&&... args);
    template <class... Args> void emplace_back(Args&&... args);
    template <class... Args> iterator emplace(const_iterator position, Args&&... args);

    void push_front(const T& x);
    void push_front(T&& x);
    void push_back(const T& x);
    void push_back(T&& x);

    iterator insert(const_iterator position, const T& x);
    iterator insert(const_iterator position, T&& x);
    iterator insert(const_iterator position, size_type n, const T& x);
    template <class InputIterator>
      iterator insert (const_iterator position, InputIterator first, InputIterator last);
    iterator insert(const_iterator position, initializer_list<T>);

    void pop_front();
    void pop_back();

    iterator erase(const_iterator position);
    iterator erase(const_iterator first, const_iterator last);
    void     swap(deque&);
    void     clear() noexcept;

  template <class T, class Allocator>
    bool operator==(const deque<T,Allocator>& x, const deque<T,Allocator>& y);
  template <class T, class Allocator>
    bool operator< (const deque<T,Allocator>& x, const deque<T,Allocator>& y);
  template <class T, class Allocator>
    bool operator!=(const deque<T,Allocator>& x, const deque<T,Allocator>& y);
  template <class T, class Allocator>
    bool operator> (const deque<T,Allocator>& x, const deque<T,Allocator>& y);
  template <class T, class Allocator>
    bool operator>=(const deque<T,Allocator>& x, const deque<T,Allocator>& y);
  template <class T, class Allocator>
    bool operator<=(const deque<T,Allocator>& x, const deque<T,Allocator>& y);

  // specialized algorithms:
  template <class T, class Allocator>
    void swap(deque<T,Allocator>& x, deque<T,Allocator>& y);